ASK THE EXPERTS
More Answers From James Norton
When am I required to update a robotic cell to current RIA standards?
In the Introduction to the current standard it indicates the applicability of the new standard. In R15.06 it states: Existing robot system installations which are physically moved after publication of this standard but are re-installed exactly as they were installed (relative positions, layout, functionality, specification and safeguarding) require review to determine if any new or revised hazard(s) have been introduced, but need no further action provided they were and remain fully compliant with the requirements of clauses 4 through 11 of R15.06-1999. Installations changed subsequent to the publication of this (R15.06-2012) edition are subject to the requirements of this edition. This does not preclude the voluntary updating of the industrial robot systems and cells to the requirements of this edition. Regards Jim Norton
We are installing an automated ultrasonic scanning system (5-axis) that only has one function - ultrasonic scanning. The definition of robot in R15.06 Is this considered to be an industrial robot? We were told not because it doesn't have a multipurpose manipulator - it just does ultrasonic scanning. Does R15.06 apply? Gary, 310-331-7191
Hi Gary, From what you say it appears it does not at least as it is configured the question is can the robot be re-programmed to do anything else. If so It would be an Industrial robot, otherwise I would agree with Lee Burk and his recommendation.
I have a question about the risk estimation methodology outlined in TR15.306. In Table 1 "Injury severity, exposure, and avoidance factors" it gives the guidance: "Choose most likely." This sounds to me like even if it is somewhat possible for a higher rating to apply, if a lower rating is significantly more likely to apply we should go with that one. For example, consider the risk of a large industrial robot striking an operator. Even moving at full speed, a reversible injury is much more likely than death/dismemberment. For this, I would select S2, but I was curious about how others are interpreting this table. Another example might be the situation where an operator is validating a program using a teach pendant. In this case, as long as reduced speed is applied and the operator is using the enabling device on the pendant, I would consider giving this an S1 rating. Yes, it is hypothetically possible for the operator to be crushed (S2 or S3) between the robot and the workpiece, but it is much, much more likely that an operator will drop/squeeze the enabling device before any significant injury occurs. A counterpoint to this would be the risk of reaching into a moving drive system. This would be S3 regardless, considering that should the person actually make contact with the drive system, it might have a high likelihood of drawing in and severing their hand. If this interpretation of the table isn’t correct, I would be very interested in learning how other people address these situations.
I think you are misreading the table, what it is saying is not the "most likely to occur" but rather the injury that you would "most likely sustain" if it did occur. In your example the operator is using the pendant control with an enabling device. That is a safety device and you are not supposed to consider safety devices at this stage. Your risk reduction method may be the use of a control pendant with an enabling switch. That is the risk reduction method you have applied to prevent the occurence Regards Jim Norton
If I have a material handling cell that the robot can reach higher than the 8' fence panel with a part, does this require then 12' fence panels? To prevent a possible thrown part from the EOAT? This has been a mater of debate for a long time for the actual height of the fence.
The new edition of EN 953/ISO 14120, now named EN ISO 14120 “Safety of machinery - Guards - General requirements for the design and construction of fixed and movable guards” – is including an informative annex, Annex C, on how a fencing system can be tested. The tests will simulate: A person walking in to the fence. Throwing of objects from within the cell Your risk assessment should determine if someone "could be injured" by an object from the cell leaving the cell over the fence, If so you would then have to address the issue in what ever way works. This may mean a Higher fence or net or perhaps extending the protective zone so that I would retain the object. Do the risk assessment and determine what you must do
I am reviewing standards or information pertaining to stack lights and or indicator lights. Isn't there a requirement that there is an indicator light for when the light curtains are muted?
See IEC 62046:2018 that should answer your questions
How many people can be in the safeguarded space for each available teach pendant? Does everyone in the space need an enabling device?
As many as needed provide each has an enabling device that can stop the robot in sufficient time to prevent injury. So yes each would need an enabling device or the system would need to be LOTO
Are there any "grandfather clauses" regarding robot guarding, integration, or risk assessment for industrial robots? If so, where is this information?
If any "grandfather exclusions" exist they generally apply only to a robot that it was in full compliance with all standards in effect on that date they were placed in service, and provided that no changes to the robot or the work cell have been made since the effective date of the new standard. I think you would find it difficult to argue to a jury that you failed to bring your system into compliance with the latest standard if you have an employee sustain a serious injury more than 4 years after the effective date of the new standard Hope this helps
When did RIA or ANSI first implement the requirement for a Risk Assessment industrial robots in the US?
I believe you will find that the requirements for a risk assessment appear at least as early as of the effective date of ANSI/RIA R15.06 1999 with the general provisions effective on or before June 21 2001. There were provisions in the 1992 standard but they were not well defined. The 1999 requirements were upgrade with R15.06-2012 after a grace period which ended on 31 December 2014. While this is a voluntary standard it is not voluntary in Europe and has been incorporated by reference by OSHA which has the power to enforce a voluntary consensus standard. Hope this answers your question
We have two robots that do pick and place points. We are looking at minimizing the 8' cage that surrounds the line, how can this be done safely?
You need to do a risk assessment to see if you can use a lower "cage" or perhaps a safety light curtain, laser scanner or safety matt. That would all depend on the risk assessment and if an alternative to the "cage" would provide sufficient protection from the hazards from the work cell.
ANSI/RIA R16.06-2012 5.3.15 says that when more than one person is required to be protected within the safeguarded space, that an enabling device shall be provided to each person. Does this mean that if only a singular person is entering the safe guarded space, they are not required to bring a teach pendant / enabling device into the cell with them?
No it does not. It means, in short, that everyone in that cell must have an enabling device or the cell must be LOTO
Would a safety gate interlocked door with a pl=d category 3 interlock, that stops robot motion, allow operators to enter a robot cell without LOTO or an enabling device, provided that their work won't require interaction with the robot and the gate key was placed into a lock box with the operators lock placed on the box?
Before this can be answered you must consider "OSHA requirements " The OSHA Control of Hazardous Energy (Lockout/Tagout) standard (29 CFR 1910.147) covers the servicing and maintenance of machines and equipment in which the unexpected energization, start up of the machines or equipment, or release of stored energy could cause injury to employees. Energy sources may include: electrical, mechanical, hydraulic, pneumatic, chemical, nuclear, thermal or other energy. Or you may want to look at "ANSI/ASSE Z244.1-2016" this standard establishes guidelines for the control for hazardous energy associated with machinery, equipment, or processes that could do harm to the personnel. Specifically, it does this by establishing lockout, tagout, or alternative methods to control the hazardous energy.
If I'm not using any safety devices in my robot cell, what equation do I use for safety distance? I believe S = K*T + C is only for used with safety devices, due to the variables dealing with human interaction speeds. Is there a general equation for safety distance with regards to fencing and so maintenance personnel can't get pinned?
What you need to look at is ANSI/RIA R15.06-2012 (for industrial robots and robot systems - Safety Requirements) Which requires you do to a risk assessment. to do that see RIA R15.306-2016 (Task-based Risk Assessment Methodology). You will find that the minimum safe distance for guards "Shall" meet the requirements of ISO 14120 and the minimum distance from any hazard "shall" be determined according to the relevant requirements of ISO 13857. I would strongly recommend that you conduct a Risk Assessment in accordance with all appropriate standards before you use your system again, otherwise you may find yourself exposed to serious fines and/or litigation if an injury were to occur, but most importantly a person will have been injured in what may well have been a preventable incident
Regarding redeployment of an older robot into a new system the RIA R15.06 1999 standard is pretty clear stating that as long as the robot was to standard when it was manufactured, it does not need to be upgraded. The rest of the system needs to be to the most current standard. Unfortunately, the 2012 standard does not specify anything about redeployment as far as I can find. Is the 1999 standard still valid? Is this spelled out in another standard or TR? If so please advise where I may find it.
You should look at ANSI/RIA R15.06-1999 section 1.3.1;1.3.2;1.3.3 and 1.3.4 I think you will find this pertinent to your question. I would strongly recommend that you do a new risk assessment regardless.
To whom should we speak about the safety standards, certifications, performance tests, etc. for LiDAR?
You would need to get your LIDAR system certified for a SIL or PL standard, This could be done thru a Notified Body in Europe i.e. TUV Rhineland or a National Recognized Testing Laboratory in the U.S. i.e.. U.L.. That would indicate that the system was certified in a specific SIL or PL level system. It does not certify that the system it is used in is certified only that your device meets the requirements for use in such a system.
How to determine fence height requirements for Fanuc 2000IC_210F Robot cell?
Perimeter Guard Dimension (per ISO 10218 & R15.06-2012) hope this helps
I am looking into risk assessment software? Is there software that does this and the circuit validation and verification with it?
I use Design Safe from www.designsafe.com. I have used it for many years and recommend it James Norton
When training a new robot tech, we have 2 employees inside the work area. One has the pendant, in teach mode and the other is around them learning. My question is,"Does the other employee need a deadman switch?" Same thing with Maintenance personnel, "Do we need a deadman for each one in the cell?"
(ANSI/RIA R15.06-2012 § 5.3.15) “When more than one person is required to be protected within the safeguarded space, an enabling device shall be provided to each person. All enabling devices associated with a single robot control shall be provided to each person. All enabling devices associated with a single robot control shall have the same functionality (span of control)" I think this answers your question. Remember the others are not used for control only for safety.
We have a Kuka KR3 R540 robot that is being integrated into an existing system for vision inspection. The mounting location for the robot is in a tight area between a table and the lexan guarding. With this is being integrated into a portion of a system that was built by a different integrator, would we need to ensure the entire line is meets RIA standards prior to installing this robot or just the station it is being integrated into? Thank you.
See RIA TR R15.506-2014 Technical report "Applicability of ANSI R15.06-2012 for existing Robot Applications. Table 1 Scenarios demonstrating various requirements. Scenario(s) 1. Existing equipment is automated with new robotic equipment, creating a new robot cell: Requirement; Treat the same as a new robot cell and conduct a risk assessment (Clause 4.2.1) Requirements: 7. Robots are added to or removed from an existing robot cell: Requirement; A risk assessment must be completed that address the affected portions. (Clause 4.2.5) Note 2 Meet the requirements of a modified robot cell (4.2.5) and perform a function check to confirm the cell performs as expected. I would do a complete new risk assessment on the entire cell
Is it acceptable to use mirrors to improve visibility? We're considering a robot cell with a few blind spots. Per 15.06, the interlock reset should "have a clear and unobstructed view of the safeguarded space." Have people used mirrors successfully to address blind spots without the need for a timed reset button inside the cell or presence sensing?
Your answer is the risk assessment. You do a risk assessment as it stands without any safety devices, or risk reduction methods and determine the performance level you need for the safety device(i.e. a.b.c.d.or e) that will You then apply your risk reduction method. Then a new risk assessment. If the risk is brought to an acceptable level you are all set, if not try again with a different approach. If you are not comfortable doing your own risk assessment you can hire someone out side your company to do it
Are retractable belt fences commonly used anywhere in the world, in industry or in academia, as safety fencing for industrial robotic cells?
I would hope not, as they have no method of preventing a person from getting to the hazard area of a robot or preventing the robotic hazard from getting to the person. They are no more effective than a warning label.
Is there a governing authority such as OSHA that specifies the need to have hard stops for the industrial robots used in a manufacturing facility?
The governing authority is the OSHA General Duty Clause, this clause and decisions made by courts in respect to it indicate that where OSHA has no specific requirements they can, and must look to industry consensus standards. ANSI standards are Industry consensus standards particularly when the are harmonized to international standards. In short you can be cited for violating an industry consensus standard. A review of the standard would show that there are options with respect to stop points of Robots hard stops are one (and the least expensive) but there are others.
If a Safety Professional wanted to up his knowledge of the safety protocols and opportunities in implementing a robot what would be the best course for training? Any suggestions? Also, incorporate some of the technical side?
I would recommend you attend the International Robot Safety Conference in Ohio this fall or any of the RIA safety conferences that are offered over the year. Also I would buy a copy of "Risk Assessment: Challenges and Opportunities" by Bruce Main. you can get it from AMAZON or I think directly from Bruce at design safety engineering, Inc. https://www.designsafe.net, Regards Jim Norton
Sir or Madam, In using the ANSI/RIA R15.06-2012 to maintain compliance I am constantly running into references to other documents. There is no explanation of the standard just a general "shall be consistent with or meet the requirements of (fill in the blank other standard). In each case, these documents are available at a significant cost. What is the purpose of assembling an all-inclusive guideline for robot integrators if all it does is point me to other documents. Very frustrating.
I understand that it can be expensive to obtain all the standards, I too have spent a great deal of money keeping up with all the standards and requirements. You do understand that many different parties of interest come into play. . There are different local, state, National and international rules that have to be considered, in addition there are many different regulatory bodies that come into play such as NFPA or the different secretariat or Sponsor for ANSI (American National Standards) So while you may have a robot you all so have a product such as a Blow Molding Machine There are standards for that as well, There are also laws both National OSHA and State to comply with As a consultant I am well aware of the cost of keeping current. I am also well aware of the severe harm that can occur for failing to follow the standards