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Would a safety gate interlocked door with a pl=d category 3 interlock, that stops robot motion, allow operators to enter a robot cell without LOTO or an enabling device, provided that their work won't require interaction with the robot and the gate key was placed into a lock box with the operators lock placed on the box?
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Before this can be answered you must consider "OSHA requirements " The OSHA Control of Hazardous Energy (Lockout/Tagout) standard (29 CFR 1910.147) covers the servicing and maintenance of machines and equipment in which the unexpected energization, start up of the machines or equipment, or release of stored energy could cause injury to employees. Energy sources may include: electrical, mechanical, hydraulic, pneumatic, chemical, nuclear, thermal or other energy. Or you may want to look at "ANSI/ASSE Z244.1-2016" this standard establishes guidelines for the control for hazardous energy associated with machinery, equipment, or processes that could do harm to the personnel. Specifically, it does this by establishing lockout, tagout, or alternative methods to control the hazardous energy.
Since you are not conducting maintenance on the robot unit itself it could be ok to not lockout the robot arm. I believe that if the safeguard is locked out, either by locking away the gate key or applying a lock onto a gate interlock then the area should be able to be entered. I would make sure to have these tasks and hazards identified in your risk assessment and allow the operators and maintenance personnel to participate in the assessment so that everybody is aware of the potential hazards and the best ways to mitigate them. Feel free and reach if you have any further questions.